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Thread: Time Consolidation

  1. Time Consolidation


    Some bulk solids increase in strength if they are stored for a period of time at rest under a compressive stress (e.g. in a silo or an IBC). This effect is called time consolidation or caking.

    Is there any list of time consolidated materials? I mean which bulk materials tend to time consolidation? powders? stones? lump or fine materials?

  2. In summary: Not that I am aware of [though look forward to understanding otherwise].

    In detail:
    1. Tunra state that most materials are affected, and
    Ref: Tunra Bulks Solids Course - Storage, Flow & Conveying Notes
    2. Schulze provides a list of mechanisms that contribute to time consolidation.
    Ref: Schulze, D, 2008, Powders and Bulk Solids : Behaviour, characterization, storage and Flow, Springer


  3. it is not so much the name of material that time consolidates as its condition. Most fine powders will gain strength as they settle and the particles become closer to develop molecular forces. Soft particles may fuse or develop flats at contact points to resist shear. Moisture bonds and caking develop strength so it's a question of looking at the possible mechanisms appropriate to the material, its condition and ambient influences so, like 'flowability', data banks are not the answer.

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